Ning Xing Zhuan《漢書·佞幸傳》
"Ning Xing Zhuan (the Biographies of the Fawning Courtiers)" is a chapter in the Book of Han, composed by Ban, Gu
Ning-xing (佞幸) is a male-identified courtier whom gained his high status in court by winning the favours of the emperor with flattery or affection. The term “ning-xing” is derogatory.
In the text, while the author, Ban, Gu (班固) criticized the influences of the fawning courtiers on policy-making, he wasn’t intimidated by the homo-romantic intimacy between the men, as he wrote in the concluding paragraph: “the qualities of being gentle, affectionate, and flirtatious are not exclusive to women; men with such traits can also be viewed as beauties desired by other men (原文: 柔曼之傾意, 非獨女德, 蓋亦有男色焉)”.
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